Part 2. “I SAY”

Section 4. “YES / NO / OKAY, BUT” Three Ways to Respond

This section moves forward to the next stage of writing which allows the reader to offer their own arugment by choosing one of three ways to respond to “they say” in the previous chapter. Apparently, many students are often intimitdated to have “high-powered conversations” or just to have an argument in general. Some students convey that a one has to be an expert in a field others, say that they don’t know enough about the topic to participate in a conversation. There are three ways to respond to “they say”: Disagree, Agree, or Both.

“Disagreeing is often the first this associated with critical thinking.” When disagreeing, you have to offer persuasive reasons why you disagree. Whether it’s “because another’s argument fails to take relevant factors into account; because it is based on faulty or incomplete evidence; because it rest on questionable assumptions; or because it uses flawed logic; is contradictor, or overlooks what you take as a real issue” the argument should support what you say. There are different techniques to approach when disagreeing such as the: ” “duh” move, in which you disagree not the position itself but with the assumption that is new or stunning revelation.” Another is called the “twist it” where the writer agrees with the evidence that someone has given but twist the logic to support their own views.

Agreeing is another way to respond to “they say.” It is important when agreeing to bring something new and different to the table, adding something that presents you as a relevant participant in the conversation. There are many approaches that enable you to give something to the table such as: “You may point out some unnoticed evidence or line of  reasoning that supports X’s claims that X herself hadn’t mention. You may corroborating personal experience, or a situation not mentioned by X that her views help reader’s understand.” Whichever way you choose to use, it’s important to: “open up some difference or contrast between your position and the one you’re agreeing with rather than simply parroting what it says.”

Agreeing & Disagreeing is the last option to respond to “they say.” The authors, Graff and Birkenstein, offer templates to use when agreeing and disagreeing. If not interested in one of those, there’s a method called: “I’m of two minds” or a “mixed feelings” move. This approach is useful to unusual or difficult work and unsure where you stand. Whether you disagreeing, agreeing, or both, as a writer, you need to be as clear as possible.

What I learned: I didn’t know many different methods of choosing whether a person agrees, disagrees, or both. It’s amazing that the authors’ have an explanation to call these methods.

Section 5. “AND YET” Distinguishing What You Say from What They Say

Not knowing whether someone is speaking or not can be very confusing to readers. It is important to establish who is saying what. In this section will clarify how to structure what they say and what you say. There are many difficulties for students to establish who’s particular view they’re reading in challenging works. To avoid this from becoming a problem, make sure that the reader can clearly point out who is saying what. Using first person can be beneficial to readers to help identify what’s being said. Although, some say they’ve been told not to use first person since it “encourages subjective, self-indulgent opinions rather than well-grounded arguments, we believe that texts using “I” can be just as well supported-” using “I” can be more impactful and personal when arguing. Another way to signal when someone is speaking is to use voice markers such as “X argues” indicating when the person is currently speaking. The authors give templates to follow to embed voice makers into a writer’s writing.

What I learned: never knew that first person was avoided in arguments. As a reader, placing “I” into a argument seems more stronger than without.

Section 6. “SKEPTICS MAY OBJECT” Planting a Naysayer in Your Text

Criticism is everywhere, regardless of what, someone will disagree with your writing. That’s why it is important to plant naysayers in the text. To notify the reader, that: yes some readers will not always agree with what the other has to say however, you are aware of the situation. Anticipating objections will allow yourself to accept that not everyone will agree with your opinions, eventually gain a tougher skin. By planting naysayers will enhance your credibility rather than undermine it. As a writer, you should see how opposing arguments can work for you rather than against you. “When you entertain a counterargument, you make a kind of preemptive strike, identifying problems with your argument before others can point them out for you.” The authors provide templates for: entertaining objections, naming your naysayers, and introducing objections informally. Represent objections fairy by introducing a different approach to your writing by doing so unbiasedly. As a writer, you want the reader to trust your intuition. Also be aware that, when you represent your objections you need to be able to persuasively execute your own view. Keep in mind that you want to be respectful to your readers, and not lash out on them for commenting their own beliefs.

What I learned: never knew what naysayers was, or even have the thought of putting naysayers into my writing will make myself a more credible writer. Also using other’s words to work with you than against you is easier.

Section 7. “SO WHAT? WHO CARES?” Saying Why It Matters

“All writers need to answer the “so what?” and “who cares?” questions up front.” Identifying why a writer’s work is important because they want the audience’s best interest; writers who fail to show that they care lose the audiences’ interest. Indicating that the writer cares about the audience will grab their attention rather than losing them, will also gain a sense of trust between the writer and reader. It’s important to gain the audience’s interest so forth you can express your writing, and why it’s important you yourself for others to know. Presenting idea’s to general readers who don’t necessarily don’t feel as strong as you feel about a particular subject can be very difficult. By telling the reader that they should care, but how other individuals care about your claims. For those readers who already know why it matters. It’s necessary to address these questions such as “so what?” and “who cares?” so the audience will understand the importance of the topic at hand. “If taken for granted the audience will intuit the answers to “so what?” and “who cares?” on their own, making your work seem less interesting than it really is.” The safest move is to be as explicit as possible in answering the “so what?” so you’re encouraging your audience to keep being engaged, and that you care.

What I learned: wouldn’t have guessed you needed to say “so what?” and “who cares?” to reassure that their best interest is at hand. Since writers have a passion of what their writing about it’s assumed that other’s will intently know that you care, without being told so.


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