Part 2. “I SAY”

Section 4. “YES / NO / OKAY, BUT” Three Ways to Respond

This section moves forward to the next stage of writing which allows the reader to offer their own arugment by choosing one of three ways to respond to “they say” in the previous chapter. Apparently, many students are often intimitdated to have “high-powered conversations” or just to have an argument in general. Some students convey that a one has to be an expert in a field others, say that they don’t know enough about the topic to participate in a conversation. There are three ways to respond to “they say”: Disagree, Agree, or Both.

“Disagreeing is often the first this associated with critical thinking.” When disagreeing, you have to offer persuasive reasons why you disagree. Whether it’s “because another’s argument fails to take relevant factors into account; because it is based on faulty or incomplete evidence; because it rest on questionable assumptions; or because it uses flawed logic; is contradictor, or overlooks what you take as a real issue” the argument should support what you say. There are different techniques to approach when disagreeing such as the: ” “duh” move, in which you disagree not the position itself but with the assumption that is new or stunning revelation.” Another is called the “twist it” where the writer agrees with the evidence that someone has given but twist the logic to support their own views.

Agreeing is another way to respond to “they say.” It is important when agreeing to bring something new and different to the table, adding something that presents you as a relevant participant in the conversation. There are many approaches that enable you to give something to the table such as: “You may point out some unnoticed evidence or line of  reasoning that supports X’s claims that X herself hadn’t mention. You may corroborating personal experience, or a situation not mentioned by X that her views help reader’s understand.” Whichever way you choose to use, it’s important to: “open up some difference or contrast between your position and the one you’re agreeing with rather than simply parroting what it says.”

Agreeing & Disagreeing is the last option to respond to “they say.” The authors, Graff and Birkenstein, offer templates to use when agreeing and disagreeing. If not interested in one of those, there’s a method called: “I’m of two minds” or a “mixed feelings” move. This approach is useful to unusual or difficult work and unsure where you stand. Whether you disagreeing, agreeing, or both, as a writer, you need to be as clear as possible.

What I learned: I didn’t know many different methods of choosing whether a person agrees, disagrees, or both. It’s amazing that the authors’ have an explanation to call these methods.

Section 5. “AND YET” Distinguishing What You Say from What They Say

Not knowing whether someone is speaking or not can be very confusing to readers. It is important to establish who is saying what. In this section will clarify how to structure what they say and what you say. There are many difficulties for students to establish who’s particular view they’re reading in challenging works. To avoid this from becoming a problem, make sure that the reader can clearly point out who is saying what. Using first person can be beneficial to readers to help identify what’s being said. Although, some say they’ve been told not to use first person since it “encourages subjective, self-indulgent opinions rather than well-grounded arguments, we believe that texts using “I” can be just as well supported-” using “I” can be more impactful and personal when arguing. Another way to signal when someone is speaking is to use voice markers such as “X argues” indicating when the person is currently speaking. The authors give templates to follow to embed voice makers into a writer’s writing.

What I learned: never knew that first person was avoided in arguments. As a reader, placing “I” into a argument seems more stronger than without.

Section 6. “SKEPTICS MAY OBJECT” Planting a Naysayer in Your Text

Criticism is everywhere, regardless of what, someone will disagree with your writing. That’s why it is important to plant naysayers in the text. To notify the reader, that: yes some readers will not always agree with what the other has to say however, you are aware of the situation. Anticipating objections will allow yourself to accept that not everyone will agree with your opinions, eventually gain a tougher skin. By planting naysayers will enhance your credibility rather than undermine it. As a writer, you should see how opposing arguments can work for you rather than against you. “When you entertain a counterargument, you make a kind of preemptive strike, identifying problems with your argument before others can point them out for you.” The authors provide templates for: entertaining objections, naming your naysayers, and introducing objections informally. Represent objections fairy by introducing a different approach to your writing by doing so unbiasedly. As a writer, you want the reader to trust your intuition. Also be aware that, when you represent your objections you need to be able to persuasively execute your own view. Keep in mind that you want to be respectful to your readers, and not lash out on them for commenting their own beliefs.

What I learned: never knew what naysayers was, or even have the thought of putting naysayers into my writing will make myself a more credible writer. Also using other’s words to work with you than against you is easier.

Section 7. “SO WHAT? WHO CARES?” Saying Why It Matters

“All writers need to answer the “so what?” and “who cares?” questions up front.” Identifying why a writer’s work is important because they want the audience’s best interest; writers who fail to show that they care lose the audiences’ interest. Indicating that the writer cares about the audience will grab their attention rather than losing them, will also gain a sense of trust between the writer and reader. It’s important to gain the audience’s interest so forth you can express your writing, and why it’s important you yourself for others to know. Presenting idea’s to general readers who don’t necessarily don’t feel as strong as you feel about a particular subject can be very difficult. By telling the reader that they should care, but how other individuals care about your claims. For those readers who already know why it matters. It’s necessary to address these questions such as “so what?” and “who cares?” so the audience will understand the importance of the topic at hand. “If taken for granted the audience will intuit the answers to “so what?” and “who cares?” on their own, making your work seem less interesting than it really is.” The safest move is to be as explicit as possible in answering the “so what?” so you’re encouraging your audience to keep being engaged, and that you care.

What I learned: wouldn’t have guessed you needed to say “so what?” and “who cares?” to reassure that their best interest is at hand. Since writers have a passion of what their writing about it’s assumed that other’s will intently know that you care, without being told so.


Language in League of Legends

Q: What’s a world without language?

A: No one would understand one another.

Focus: League of Legends

Most of my life, I have been an online gamer; I’ve started to play p/c games since 2004. P/C Gamers, such as myself, have our own unique language when we play online games. It obviously depends which game you’re playing, but most online gamers would know what you’re trying to say, because a lot of the times people use the same saying. Recently, for the past 3-4 years, I have been playing League of Legends.


LoL is an MOBA or multiplayer online battle arena game. There are different gaming types, but the primary is PvP (person vs person). The concept of this game type is basically get to the other team’s base, and destroy their nexus (which is the goal to win). I will try to explain everything in the easiest way possible.



This is Summoner’s Rift. It’s the primary map to battle other players. Between the bases at each corner, and covering the majority of the map are the lanes and jungle. The lanes are pathways that are stretched across the whole map. These lanes are referred to as: top-lane, middle-lane, and bottom lane. Everything in between is called the jungle. The jungle is a complex system of trees and pathways that snake around the lanes. The jungle is home to different monsters that will not attack unless if messed with.


Each team has 5 players, each person has 1 role: Top-lane, Mid-lane, Attack Damage Carry, Support, and Jungle. There are many different champions to choose from, which all have unique capabilities to suit for each lane. Each champion is catagorized as 1 of the 5 different roles. There are “weapons” also called a build, but the champion doesn’t actually use it. It’s basically to enhance or add a special ability to the champion.



League of Legends players use their own language because, well if you want all honestly, it just makes it easier for the players to communicate among one another, if you’re already not using Skype or Discord. But most of the time, you’ll be playing with random people selected when searching for a party.

Here’s some of the words frequently used: (not all)

Top: Top lane

Mid: Middle lane

Bot: Bottom lane

GLHF: Good Luck & Have Fun

AFK: Away from keyboard

DC: Disconnected

Fed: to have an unusually exceptional score (kills)

OOM: Out of Mana


The players in each game will most likely say those terms while selecting a champion or already in game. The people who use these languages don’t really misuse, distort, or redefine the terms, because the gamer’s already know, if not someone will explain to the new player. Other’s just go along with the terms, because honestly it makes it easier to communicate among other players without wasting time typing or explaining what you want to say. It makes player’s have better communication, and still have time to enjoy the game. The league community actually has really nice people, with some exceptions of course, the audience varies from among different kinds of people. People who are new to the game usually has a couple of players from their team explain what the phrases mean, and how to successfully win the game. I’m honestly not sure how these phrases where originated but I feel like their from common sense, and someone was just lazy to type out the whole word or phrase. The language among the gamers are just easy to get, and not to complex so everyone can have a wonderful gaming experience. I love playing league to distress from stressful days, some can say otherwise. However, the gaming community is actually honestly really interesting, and it amazes me how people from all over the world can come together, and enjoy a simple game.

Ways of Seeing

In Ways of Seeing by John Berger, the author tells the reader that there is a difference from: how we see things, and what we know. After reading this, my mind felt like it exploded. Several questions popped into my head: was I fool from people’s perspectives on certain events throughout history? Was my own perspective based on someone’s biased knowledge or belief? I was quite angry in all honestly, I felt like its unfair for just one person to document what they see, then they just go beyond that, for all I know the person doesn’t know all of the information. But I know I can’t really do anything, besides wonder what really goes on throughout our history that the books don’t tell us. All I know is perception is very important, because what we see in our eyes might be different to another’s person eyes.

While I was thinking of what to post: I realized in my Psychology 101 class I took last semester that my professor, a wonderful great human being, commented on this situation as well. He said our perspective is most likely seen in a “white man’s” point of view. Clearly at the time I honestly wasn’t listening, and was on my phone. I really wondered if society is “brained washed” into thinking for the people rather than people thinking for themselves. If you look at it, children go to school, they’re told how things were never questioned a thing because it’s history, it doesn’t relate or effect us on our current day life. So we ignore what the book tells us, and subconsciously put the information in our head. We just accept what we hear, rather than questioning.

Everyone see’s things in a different view point. Seeing things is different than experiencing things. For example, you can google “Las Vegas Strip,” and see a bunch of pictures from Las Vegas or see other’s experiences which can modify how you see, but if actually coming to Las Vegas, it’s completely different because you’re experiencing things in your own way not by what someone’s telling you. You can make your own observation.

I’m honestly convinced that my perception has been altered, and modified to look at the past a certain way. Since I wasn’t even born during most of the major events in history I can conclude that I basically have been looking at an altered history. Which makes me honestly mad because I like to know what actually happened throughout our history as a country. We honestly can’t trust everything, just because there’s a book, website, etc. stating “facts” doesn’t mean they’re actually true.




Media Changes Perception

Perception: Complex process by which people select, organize, and interpret sensory stimulation into a meaningful and coherent picture of the world.

Our perception of the world; how a person sees things in his/her own eyes makes us individuals, and different from one another. We have our own morals, values and opinions. Our perception may be completely different than others around us. Preception is very important whether you realize that or not, it influences decision making, how a person will perceive things in their life, and how a person behaves towards a situation.

In the passage, “Perception in Mass Media,”  tells the reader that without subconsciously knowing we are influenced by everything a person takes in by experiencing his/her own life. Our brain is not capable of processing, and understanding the world around among ourselves, but only focusing on the person’s self.

How does media influence our perspective?

I’ve always known the media tries to influence people’s decisions, and how they percieve things. Whether it’s through social media or news, people’s perspective always change whether you realize it or not. For example, whenever I’m bored at home: I go through my social media feed, I always see how people try to influence others to see their own way in seeing things. Usually people try to switch words around, put something out of context, and sometimes due to different people’s opinions they lose the original context. When the original content is found the reader can make his/her own assumptions about the article, then start to influence others in their own way.

Perception & Information Processing

“Perception involves a stimulus assigned to a certain category on basis of information that is incomplete” “Information Processing is conception of human congintion modeled after the modern high-speed computer. Including structures for storing information, information transferred from one structure to another.” Perception and Information Processing are different because, perception basically like seeing something in our point of view. Information Processing is storing information and decoding the information in your head.

Schema Theory

“In a nutshell, a schema is a cognitive structure consisting of organized knowl- edge about situations and individuals that has been abstracted from prior experiences. It is used for processing new information and retrieving stored information” (Graber, 1988, p. 28) Schema helps people to understand how others process many new stories. It appears that the person attempts to match information in a new story to some existing schema, by searching different strategies. If found the same, they are stored in the form of modified  schema. If not found, the information is likely to pass.

Subliminal Messaging

One of the most heavily studied aspects of perception. Subliminal Messaging is basically just hinting someone over and over again to influence their behavior, actions, and perspective. Studies were done by simply flashing words on screens every few seconds, and the sales of the word that was flashing increased.

Perception of Pictures

Pictures and images are obviously ways to add affective or emotional arousal or representations of what a person is trying to comprehend. They are used to communicate in more complex ways, that tries to add a more powerful message than a simple statement. People react to pictures and images more better than an actual passage itself. Adding a picture of image can only make the passage, article or essay more powerful.


Personal Writing History

There are multiple reasons for one to write, whether it be the rhetoric of a lawyer defending his client in the courtroom, educating others such as greek philosopher Aristotle, or in modern times even to leave a short comment on a Youtube video or Instagram picture. I have found that i write for the latter reason being social media the most. In todays age not only writing on the page of another person but putting out content that demands the comments of others on a website such as youtube or Instagram has become a full career for many individuals. I personally have built and sold many accounts which were based off of a simple computer program which would leave witty and thoughtful comments on the pages of other socialites online in order to build gatherings and then to sell the account once it becomes large enough. This enables the buyer to reach out to others and further develop a network of essentially people writing leaving like sharing thoughts and giving feedback to the new account owners while also bringing myself a steady stream of income which has allowed me to stay at home and pursue other things while in school to further find myself. Writing also has a certain intimacy to it that speaking seems to lack at times. I find that for any formal situation in which I want to be taken seriously writing is more often than not the only way to establish a professional or even romantic relationship. When applying for a job what is the first thing that is mentioned during an interview? Your resume which is a a written record of your many accomplishments up until this point of your career. This form of writing provides a short and sweet overview of your accomplishments while also structuring things in a manner which is coherent for others to scan through briefly without taking up too much time. My earliest experiences with writing which I found enjoyable were mainly outside of the classroom on a popular video game I played during my late elementary and early middle school days called MapleStory. This video game didn’t allow for verbal communication and therefore every action in game that involved collaboration with other players had to be executed through written commands which were central to the success of your team completing party quests together. I also specialize in a very different form of writing which still involves a large amount of communication and that is writing music. Every section of a song has to be written with a specific goal in order and a specific audience which it will be aimed at. I also have to make sure that each part of the song harmonizes with each other creating an overall sense of unity for whoever my current listener is. For me the ability to communicate with other people or artists without having to use spoken word is truly a magical experience. When two people can collaborate on a song based purely on feeling and emotion its almost like the truest, no the purest form of communication that can be shared between two people. When collating musically it is impossible for one person to per say lie to the other person because everything is simply happening in the moment and all based of of pure emotion or feel of the song. This is known as harmony which I referred too early and that sense of unity is essentially no different then the requirement that essays have to be logical, in chronological order, and coherent.  The social and personal impacts of writing are what I believe to be the easiest tangible examples to demonstrate, think of a man like Martin Luther King gathering his words on paper before presenting them as a speech to thousands of people gather them together in order to fight for the same cause such as I mentioned previously in the game Maple story but obviously on a much larger scale. What are the results of this type of writing? The first is Social Change, look at the rights granted to African Americans and other minority which started with one man in a room writing his ideas down or look at our US a written document that holds the upmost amount of power in our country guaranteeing the rights of individuals and setting the precedent for new social issues and how they are handled hundreds of years after it was written. Writing is simply communication and without communication we are lost and out of touch with our peers and anyone else who can read obviously!


Part 1. “THEY SAY”

Section 1. “THEY SAY” : Starting with What Others Are Saying

This section in chapter one provides a sense of what one should do when beginning to write a paper. Graff and Birkenstein show a hypothetical scenario in which a speaker discusses the work of a sociologist with controversial findings. The authors go into detail as to why the speaker’s lecture failed to reach the audience. They basically explain that, when you first start writing a paper, you should never go into extremes. One shouldn’t overuse what other’s have said, or their own ideas. The writer should find a happy medium in between the two, while first stating what “they say” and then your own beliefs – one should state their beliefs as quickly as possible. Graff and Birkenstein also bring up how writing temples, while limiting creativity, are a good way to build a foundation for a paper.

What I learned: I had difficulties reading this section, I had to ask for assistance from an outside source, and reading the section over several amount of times. In the beginning I did not understand who “THEY” were. I came to the conclusion that “THEY” where the  people who have discussed and analyzed the topic before.

Section 2. “HER POINT IS” : The Art of Summarizing

“A good summary requires balancing what the original author is saying with the writer’s own focus.” That essentially is the entirety of this section. Graff and Birkenstein, they attempt to encourage the use of summarizing in writing, explaining that writers shouldn’t shy away from using them and instead act as if they had wrote it themselves, so that they could build upon it themselves with their own ideas. The authors, however, do warn the reader that there are certain things that they should avoid while using summaries – the two, most major of with being the accidental slippage of personal bias into summaries of others’ works and the tendency to start writing boring, “list” summaries. To help support the idea of not boring the audience, they, the authors, explain that the reader should use more descriptive action verbs when writing and even provide a handy list of examples.

What I learned: I essentially already knew not to add personal bias into summaries, however I didn’t actually realize that list summaries are considered unappealing to an audience. In addition, I didn’t know to use verbs to fit the action, the list of verbs they provide are quite useful.

Section 3. “AS HE HIMSELF PUTS IT” : The Art of Quoting

This section, Graff and Birkenstein go through how a writer should go about quoting from other works. They explain that a writer should always frame whatever quote they’re using correctly, doing so within the flow of their writing and not introducing them with phrases like “George Orwell says”, or “Charles Darwin once said”. They also bring up how a writer should go about analyzing and explaining quotes to the audience, stating that it is never a bad thing to go into great detail about such things, as it gives the reader an idea of how it is relevant to the overall paper.

What I learned: There is a lot more to quoting passages than I first expected. It’s better to over analyzing then to risk a dangling quote.